Native to India, this annual herb is cultivated for its leaves and stems. The leaves are cooked as a vegetable, similar to spinach and the stems yield a strong fibre.
It grows a straight, slim stem up to 4.5 m (15 ft) tall, though only up to 3 m (10 ft) in vegetable varieties, with little or no branching when closely spaced. The leaves are elongated-oval, pointed at the tip, dark green above, grey-green underneath and finely toothed along the margins.
The flowers are small, bright yellow and are induced into bloom by short-day length, from autumn to winter.
They are followed by green, ridged, finger-like seedpods with small green to blue-grey seed inside.
The vegetable variety is commonly known as 'Egyptian spinach' because it is so widely grown, cooked and eaten in that country, leading to its adoption as the national vegetable. Only the young leaves are cooked, which have a high mucilage content similar to Okra.
It is also cultivated as a fibre crop for making a variety of robust textile products, including sacking material, carpet backing, tarpaulins and rope. Curtains and upholstery textiles are also made from the fibres, interwoven with other fibres such as cotton.
The edible parts are reportedly rich in Vitamins A and C.
It grows best as a summer annual in moderately humid to humid subtropical and tropical lowland climates, generally in areas with annual lows of 12 to 25 °C, annual highs of 23 to 35 °C and annual rainfall of 1200 to 3500 mm. With irrigation, its cultivation can be extended to very low rainfall areas, such as occurs along the Nile River in Egypt.
New plants are easily grown from seed and are usually planted
for growing a summer crop, either for vegetable or fibre production. The
seed are very small and are either sown in seed-trays to grow seedlings
for transplanting, or sown directly in suitably prepared, loose and enriched soil.
When grown as a vegetable, the young leaves and
shoots are harvested periodically in the growing season. Frequent
harvesting delays flowering and prolongs the harvest period. If seed are
required for the next season's crop then some plants will need to
be allowed to flower and set seed.
Harvesting starts around forty to sixty days after sowing or transplanting. Shoots and their leaves are harvested when 20 to 30 cm (8 to 12 in) long and are harvested periodically over the growing season. Reported yields range from 5000 to 8000 kilograms per hectare per year, the equivalent of 4500 to 7100 pounds per acre.
When grown as a fibre crop, the timing of harvesting is critical and is best done at the early seedpod stage. Harvesting before flowering results in weak fibres and delaying harvesting until the seed are ripe results in fibres that are coarse and lack lustre.
After harvesting, the long stems are bundled and left to dry in the field for a few days until the leaves are shed and then they are retted (softened in water) for up to thirty days so that the fibres can be easily stripped from the stems.
Both vegetable and fibre varieties perform best on well-drained sand
or loam soils of a moderately acid to neutral nature, generally with a pH of 5.5 to 7.0 and on sites with full sun exposure.
small seed are easily dispersed by wind or water, sometimes far from the parent plant and under favourable
conditions germinate readily. It is listed as a
weed in more than one reference publication and is reported as a serious weed in some countries. In Australia, it is classed as a weed of the natural environment and of agriculture.
Adams, C. D. 1972, Flowering plants of Jamaica, University of the West Indies, Mona, Greater Kingston
Duke, J. A. 1983, Handbook of energy crops (unpublished), Center for New Crops & Plants Products, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 1988, Traditional food plants : a resource book for promoting the exploitation and consumption of food plants in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid lands of eastern Africa, Food and Nutrition Paper No. 42, Rome
Ghosh, T. 1983, Handbook on jute, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome
Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors) 2004, Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, Volume 2 : Vegetables, PROTA Foundation, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden
Parrotta, J. A. 2001, Healing plants of peninsular India, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire
Randall, R. P. 2002, A global compendium of weeds, R.G. and F.J. Richardson Press, Melbourne
Randall, R. P. 2007, The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status, Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management, Glen Osmond, South Australia
Rubatzky, V. E. & Yamaguchi, M. 1997, World vegetables : principles, production, and nutritive values, 2nd ed., Chapman & Hall, New York
Tindall, H. D. & Rice, L. W. 1990, Fruit and vegetable production in warm climates, International ed., Macmillan, London
Van Wyk, B. E. 2005, Food plants of the world: an illustrated guide, 1st ed., Timber Press, Portland, Oregon
Wood, I. M. 1997, Fibre crops : new opportunities for Australian agriculture, Queensland Department of Primary Industries (QLD DPI), Brisbane
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