Babaco is a mountain papaya species originating from the highlands of Ecuador and Colombia and is believed to be a naturally occurring hybrid of Carica stipulate and Carica pubescens.
The plant is a small herbaceous shrub, similar in appearance to other papaya species but only grows 1.5 to 3 m (5 to 10 ft) tall. Much like papaya, it has an erect semi-woody trunk that is green when young, grey-brown when mature and is marked by leaf scars. Generally, the thicker the trunk the more vigorous the plant and the more productive it is likely to be. On wounding, it yields a sticky, white latex, as do all parts of the plant, including the green or young fruit. Lateral branching is rare but the roots often send up shoots.
Leaves very large, dark green, deeply lobed, prominently ribbed and veined, and attach to the trunk with a long hollow leaf-stalk. They are alternately arranged along the top half of the trunk and remain on the plant for four to six months before they die-back and fall to the ground.
Flowers usually solitary, bell-shaped with five creamy-white petals, dark green sepals and arise at the leaf axis. They bloom without seasonal influence, starting about three months after planting and are all female, but do not require pollination to set fruit.
The flowers are replaced by elongated, five-sided papaya-like fruit up to 30 cm (1 ft) long. These usually weighing from 1 to 2 kg (2.2 to 4.4 lbs), but may be larger. They are green when young, becoming bright orange-yellow when ripe and ripen in progression from the lowest fruit to those higher up on the trunk. Being a hybrid and sterile plant, there are no seed produced.
The fruit are fragrant and flavoursome, with a taste and aroma distinctly different from that of Papaya (Carica papaya). The pulp is creamy-white, juicy with a melting texture, and with a pleasingly sub-acid to slightly acid flavour that some say tastes like cantaloupe (rockmelon) with a hint of passionfruit and pineapple. It is mostly eaten fresh out-of-hand and is easy to prepare because it is eaten with the skin on and there are no seed to remove. It can also be made into juice, dried fruit and jam.
Babaco latex contains large amounts of the protein-digesting enzyme papain, which is harvested commercially from Papaya (Carica papaya), and used as a meat tenderiser as well as a digestion aid for those unable to properly digest protein.
Grows naturally in sub-humid to humid subtropical and tropical highland climates, generally frost-free areas with annual lows of 9 to 17 °C, annual highs of 20 to 29 °C, annual rainfall of 700 to 2000 mm and a dry season of 5 months or less.
Babaco is also cultivated with irrigation in much drier areas, such as southern coastal California.
New babaco plants are started from cuttings because seed are not produced.
Cuttings are obtained by dividing the trunk of mature plants into slender sections around 30 cm (1 ft) long and 5 cm (2 in) in diameter. These are then dipped in a fungicide bath and the rooting end in a rooting hormone before being planted in a free-draining potting mix, where they usually strike roots within two to three months.
Performs best on organically rich, fast-draining loam, sandy-loam and loamy-sand soils of a moderately acid to slightly alkaline nature, generally with a pH of 5.5 to 7.5 and on sites with full to partial sun exposure.
Well-tended plants start bearing fruit when about one year old and then continuously thereafter for two years, after which they become unproductive and die, though they may be used before then for propagating cuttings.
The fruit are harvested when they begin to turn from green to yellow and before they are fully ripe. When properly harvested and carefully packed, Babaco fruit remain in good condition for more than a month at 6 °C (43 °F). The fruit does not oxidise (turn brown) over time.
Yields are better than that of papaya and intensive cultivation has yielded up to 100,000 kgs to the hectare, with 40,000 to 60,000 kgs per hectare (35,680 to 53,500 lbs per acre) more usual. It has been grown commercially with varying degrees of success in Ecuador, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, Italy, California and Israel.
Babaco plants are highly susceptible to root-rot and powdery-mildew, which are diseases brought on by poor drainage or overwatering and by constantly humid conditions. Care should also be taken when laying mulch and fertilising, to keep the materials away from the trunk.
Babaco is recorded as having escaped cultivation and as naturalised on the Galapagos Islands, but there does not appear to be any record of it anywhere as a weed. And because the plant does not produce seed, it is unlikely to develop into a problem weed or invasive species.
The latex is extremely irritating to the eyes.
Janick, J., & Paull, R. E. 2008, The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire
Martin, F. M., et al. 1987, Perennial edible fruits of the tropics : an inventory, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, D.C.
National Research Council (Board on Science and Technology for International Development) 1989, Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation, The National Academies Press, Washington D. C.
Randall, R. P. 2002, A global compendium of weeds, R.G. and F.J. Richardson Press, Melbourne
Watson, B.J., & Moncur, M. 1985, Guideline criteria for determining survival, commercial and best mean minimum July temperature for various tropical fruit in Australia (Southern Hemisphere), Department of Primary Industries Queensland (DPI QLD), Wet Tropics Regional Publication, Queensland
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