White Mulberry is a fruit tree originating from China. Exceptional specimens may reach heights of up to 20 m (65 ft), though it is more typically a small tree 9 to 12 m (30 to 40 ft) tall and develops a straight trunk supporting a pyramidal or rounded crown of gently weeping branches. The bark is light grey, smooth becoming fissured on older trees.
As a result of selective breeding over many years, it comes in a range cultivars, with variation in fruit size, shape and colour, also plant size, including dwarf forms and with different heat and cold tolerances.
The leaves are light glossy green, medium-sized and are in two forms, even on the same tree, either oval with smooth margins or palmate and deeply lobed. They are densely arranged in an alternate pattern along the stems and are deciduous, falling off the tree during seasonally dry or cool weather.
In spring, the new leaves emerge along with tiny, greenish-white female and male flowers held in separate, finger-like clusters arising from nodes along the branches. The female flowers are followed by small, elongated raspberry-like fruit that ripen in summer to dark purple, red, pink or green-white, depending on the variety.
Grown under favourable conditions the fully ripe fruit are sweet and flavoursome, reminding of cantaloupe or rockmelon. They are mainly eaten fresh out-of-hand or are made into jam soon after harvesting, as they deteriorate quickly. They can also be made into wine and when dried have a sweet, raisin-like taste.
It is commonly grown as an ornamental shade or landscape tree for its shapely form and dense, green foliage but only fruitless varieties are selected for planting because they present less of a litter and weed problem.
The leaves have a long history of use as food for silkworms and are also a valuable livestock feed, fed mainly to goats and cattle. They have a high crude protein content, the equivalent of around 15% of their dry weight.
The wood is fine-grained and medium-weight, averaging out at around 750 kilograms per cubic meter (47 lbs per cubic ft), but has low natural resistance to decay and the logs are of a small diameter, making sawing them into planks impractical. It is mostly used in its roundwood form, mainly for carving into sporting articles, such as hockey sticks and bats, for which it is well-suited due to its strength and flexibility properties. It also makes an excellent firewood when properly dried.
The leaves are one of the main sources of chlorophyll for the pharmaceutical and food industries, extracted for use in cosmetics, toiletries, such as toothpaste and as a natural colouring agent, especially in foods that do not require heat treatment, such as chilled desserts. Chlorophyll is also high in Vitamin K and is widely promoted as a blood and liver tonic.
Although naturally adapted to warm temperate climates, it grows and fruits well in moderately humid subtropical and tropical mid- to high-elevation climates, generally in areas with annual lows of 10 to 19 C°, annual highs of 19 to 33 °C, annual rainfall of 400 to 1600 mm and a dry season of 8 months or less.
White Mulberry is also grown in tropical lowland climates to produce leaves for feeding to livestock, but this is at the expense of fruit production, due the susceptibility of the fruit to fungal disease brought on by hot, humid conditions.
New plants are usually raised from one-year-old hardwood cuttings. White Mulberry performs best on rich, free-draining clay and loam soils of a moderately acid to slightly alkaline nature, generally with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5 and on sites with full to partial sun exposure. It is susceptible to wind damage and should not be planted on sites exposed to strong winds.
Birds are attracted to the fruit and carry the seed afar, which has caused it to escape cultivation. As a result of its widespread introduction, it has naturalised in many countries outside of its native range and is recorded as a weed of agriculture in Australia and more seriously as an invasive plant species in South Africa.
The unripe fruit reportedly contains a hallucinogenic and the ripe fruit drop to the ground and stain whatever they land on.
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